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Seasonal Comparison of Contaminants in Drinking Water from Catchment to Household in Fako, Cameroon

Journal: International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (Vol.4, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 146-156

Keywords : Health and Hygiene; Drinking Water Microbial; coliform; total plate count; physico-chemical quality parameters; Fako division;

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Background The new Joint Monitoring program for drinking water ladder classification defines safely managed water as water coming from an improved source and free from contamination. The sustainable development goal 6.1 targets scaling up the population using safely managed drinking water by 2030. Reports from the weekly epidemiological data on diseases under surveillance in Fako division, indicates waterborne related diseases as the second and third leading diseases under surveillance. Reports also reveal higher burden of gastro intestinal disorders in the rainy season compared to the dry season. The study aimed to assess drinking water quality in the dry and rainy seasons from water sources catchments to point of use at households , in terms of some microbial and physiochemical pollution, in Fako, Division, Cameroon.Method This Longitudinal study was carried out from January to June 2018. A probability proportionate to size was used to select 15 randomly selected drinking water catchments from the four health districts in Fako Buea, Limbe, Muyuka and Tiko . Drinking water samples were collected following standard protocol from each catchment, then one randomly selected standpipe from each catchment and one randomly selected household from each catchment. The samples were then stored in a cold chain and taken to the laboratory within 6 hours for analysis microbial, physiochemical and heavy metals in the catchments and microbial in the public standpipes and households . The seasonal variation of the different contaminant at the different water points were determined using independent sample t test. The mean TPC total plate count and CFC coliform count were compared in the different season at different water point. Pearson correlation analysis established an association between the different physicochemical parameters of water samples. Data were processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS version 20, and office excel 2010. Results This study found that the mean TPC at source during rainy season had a high statistically significant mean 157.50±380mm l compared to TPC mean during dry season 11.00±26.5mm l , t 23 =1.386, P=0.047.Also at the level of the tap, the mean CFC during rainy season was statistically higher 4.75±9.08mm l compared to mean CFC during the dry season 0.58±1.73mm l , t 22 =1.56, P=0.012.At the household level ,the mean CFC during the rainy season was statistically higher 14.42±17 24mm l compared to mean CFC during dry season 0.30±0.94mm l ,t 20 =2.575 P=0.018. Though not statistically significant, the water at the catchments was softer in the dry season compared to the rainy season. There was a strong positive association between water hardness and EC 25°C µs cm r=0.981, P 0.01 .On the other hand, pH is negatively correlated with EC 25°C µs cm and Hardness mg L r= 0.680, r= .662, p 0.01 . The study concludes that there is a significant difference in the seasonal variation in the microbial contaminants from drinking water catchments through public standpipes to households. We recommend adequate monitoring and surveillance of drinking water by all stakeholders through the institution of a Water Safety Plan team. Malika Esembeson | Ndefon Peter | Henry Dilonga Meriki | Kukwah Anthony Tufon | Kamgno Joseph | Njunda Anna Longdoh "Seasonal Comparison of Contaminants in Drinking Water from Catchment to Household in Fako, Cameroon" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-4 | Issue-1 , December 2019, URL: Paper URL:

Last modified: 2020-01-08 14:44:03