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Substituting wheat flour with okara flour in biscuit production

Journal: "Foods and Raw materials" Journal (Vol.8, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ; ; ;

Page : 422-428

Keywords : Flour; dough; particle size; texture; biscuits; nutrient content; sensory evaluation;

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Introduction. High fiber bakery products can be a healthy snack option for consumers. Our study focused on the effect of replacing wheat flour with okara flour on the physicochemical, nutritional, textural, and sensory attributes of biscuits. Study objects and methods. We used 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w okara flour to prepare biscuits. Refined wheat flour (control), mixed flour (okara and wheat flour), dough, and biscuits were assessed for physicochemical, textural, and nutritional properties, as well as sensory characteristics. The volume of particles was higher in 8% okara flour (145 μm) compared to refined wheat flour (91 μm). Results and discussion. 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w okara flour biscuits showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower spread ratio and weight loss than biscuits from wheat flour. Hardness, stickiness, and cohesiveness of 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara flour dough were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower compared to the control, resulting in decreased cutting strength and increased hardness of okara flour biscuits. Moisture, protein, ash, fat, and crude fiber contents of 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara biscuits were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher compared to the control biscuits. The sensory evaluation suggested that 4% okara biscuits had higher consumer acceptability and were superior to the control and other okara biscuits. Conclusion. Mixed flour biscuits made from okara and wheat flours were superior in physicochemical, nutritional, textural, and sensory attributes, which allows considering them as an alternative healthy snack.

Last modified: 2021-01-25 20:53:29