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Mechanisms of Regulation Allergic and Autoimmune Reactions by Bacterial Origin Bioregulators

Journal: RUDN Journal of Medicine (Vol.27, No. 4)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ;

Page : 470-482

Keywords : innate immunity; immune homeostasis; allergy; autoimmunity; tolerance; LPS; lipopolysaccharide; glucosaminylmuramyldipeptide; muramyl peptide; nisin; inflammation regulation; bacterial origin bioregulators;

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Relevance. The increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases observed in recent decades highlights the need for therapy and prevention, which requires detailed research into the mechanisms of their occurrence. The onset and progression of allergic and autoimmune diseases are influenced by genetic predisposition, lifestyle, environmental factors, and disruptions in the coordinated operation of the immune system, and as a consequence of immune homeostasis. Treatment of these diseases is primarily symptomatic and often accompanied by undesirable side effects. Immune system disorders in various pathologies have their own characteristics for each type of disease, and at the same time have common mechanisms. Considering the presence of a large number of various microorganisms in the human body, taking their influence into account is of paramount importance. Microorganisms are a source of biologically active molecules, the action of which can either prevent and reduce the severity of the disease or exacerbate it. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytokine profile of the effects of fragments of cell walls of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muramyl peptide (MP), as well as nisin - an antimicrobial peptide of bacterial origin on human mononuclear cells. Materials and Methods. Mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers using Cell separation media Lympholyte CL 5015, and were cultured in the presence of LPS, GMDP and bacteriocin nisin. The cytokine activity of LPS, GMDP and bacteriocin nisin was examined using the multiplex cytokine analysis; the analysis of surface markers was determined flow cytometry. Results and Discussion. It was shown that bacterial cell wall fragments to a much greater extent than nisin induce the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. It was established that LPS and MP increase the expression of CD11c on dendritic cells, while bacteriocin nisin does not affect the increase of CD11c+ DCs. LPS and MP in the conducted ex vivo studies did not affect the emergence of CCR7. Conclusion. Bacterial origin bioregulators trigger a negative feedback mechanism by inducing the synthesis of anti-inflammatory factors, that can prevent the inflammatory process. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the influence of bacterial origin bioregulators on the human body opens new approaches in the prevention and development of personalized therapy strategies.

Last modified: 2024-04-02 00:52:27