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Journal: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IAJPS) (Vol.03, No. 08)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ; ;

Page : 773-776

Keywords : Schizophrenia; Neurotransmitters; Genetics;

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation. People often have additional mental health problems such as major depression, anxiety disorders, or substance use disorder. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time. The cause of schizophrenia is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. During diagnosis a person's culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013 there is no objective test. Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or "multiple personality disorder" ? a condition with which it is often confused in public perception. The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication along with counseling, job training, and social rehabilitation. It is unclear if typical or atypical antipsychotics are better. In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics, clozapine may be used. In more serious cases?where there is risk to self or others?involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were. About 0.3?0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetime. In 2013 there was estimated to be 23.6 million cases globally. Males are more often affected than females. About 20% of people do well and a few recover completely. Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness are common. The average life expectancyof people with the disorder is ten to twenty five years less than the average. This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%). In 2013 an estimated 16,000 people died from behavior related-to or caused by schizophrenia. Key words: Schizophrenia, Neurotransmitters, Genetics

Last modified: 2016-08-18 02:07:41