DETERMINATION OF THE BASIC FIELDS OF EFFICIENT STATE INFLUENCE ON ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRYJournal: Academic Bulletin "Economics and Region" (Vol.2, No. 51)
Publication Date: 2015-04-29
Economic development of many countries worldwide has been accompanied with inconsiderate attitude to environment for a long time. That has led to a dramatic worsening of environmental problems and ecosystem degradation. These resource and environmental problems can be solved with ensuring efficient and environmentally responsible functioning of industry. The aim of the present research is to analyze international experience in managing environmentally efficient industry development model intended for adopting the sustainable development strategy and identifying key areas of active state influence on ecological orientation of the industry’s economic development. The performed analysis showed that at the national level developed countries carry out structured, centralized environmental policy aimed at ensuring sustainable development, videlicet reducing environmental pollution with direct and indirect regulation methods. Notably, in Canada, the USA and Japan strict environmental standards are quite widely used. The main principles of environmental and economic regulation in these countries include prevention and neutralization of ecological consequences and compensation for losses. In addition to that, indirect methods of environmental and economic regulation are generally employed in the USA. Among the EU member states, Germany is the leader in carrying out environmentally efficient industrial policy. Germany’s industrial enterprises pay great attention to developing technologies which permit reducing water and air pollution as much as possible. Switzerland has topped the environmental efficiency rating for several years running. Efficient environmental policy based on considerable government financing and active public participation helped the country in achieving such a success. Efficiency of Switzerland’s environmental policy is founded on a wellthought-out legislative framework and its accurate implementation, when law-enforcement authorities are involved. The analysis of international experience showed that taxes are an efficient method of carrying out a country’s environmental policy. Using taxes as an instrument of environmental and economic regulation favors reduction in emission and waste producing, improves waste recycling process, stimulates adoption of processes and technologies intended for using less carbon dioxide-intensive energy carriers in manufacturing.
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