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PARTICULARITIES OF HOUSING AND EXPLOITATION OF TERRITORIES OF ANCIENT SETTLEMENTS

Journal: Academic Journal "Industrial Machine Building, Civil Engineering" (Vol.3, No. 45)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ;

Page : 137-143

Keywords : ancient settlements; underground tunnels; loess rocks; hole; pseudokarst; suffusion; soil-cement; deep soil mixing technology.;

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Abstract

This article deals with particularities of erection and exploitation of buildings and structures in the territories of ancient Ukrainian settlements. Ancient settlements include territories of fortifications for there were fortifications aplenty in territory that was a part of Kyiv Rus. These settlements feature underground tunnels. The tunnels were made in order to protect Slavic people and their belongings from hostile raids. Archeologists have proved the existence of underground tunnels in Kyiv, Chernigiv, Sumy regions. Lots of these kinds of tunnels were in the city of Poltava. The tunnels were stretched from one church to another and all of them were connected. On author’s opinion people built underground tunnels even earlier then houses for protection and storing supplies. It is shown that underground tunnels were performed by people mainly in the territory where loess rocks were widely spread. Poltava loess plateau consists of layers of loess loam close to the ground surface. This soil was widely used by Ukrainians as a construction material for buildings and structures. For its mining people dug out vertical shafts and then performed horizontal tunnels in the layers of loess loam. Structural features of loess loam contributed to maintaining vertical position of tunnels walls. This features enabled this tunnels for further use as household rooms or warehouses. Techno genic engineering-geology processes acting in such kind of territories were determined. As time passed underground tunnels lost its significance for people and its location was forgotten about. As a result of different circumstances these tunnels collapsed and were filled with different soils, including anthropogenic. Now those tunnels remind of themselves by collapsing of daylight surface and critical deformations of structures located above. This article addresses the problem of complications of construction caused by underground tunnels. Following goals were set: techno genic engineering-geology phenomenon of described types of territory was investigated; special measures for safely erection and long-term exploitation of buildings and structures in theses territories were introduced. Constant investigations of engineering geology features of described territories were performed. Monitoring of buildings and structures were conducted. This investigation led authors to following conclusions: – small size of underground tunnel significantly complicate the process of its discovering; – for the moment local construction enterprises lack of necessary equipment for detection of these tunnels; – during surveying it is necessary to find and use historic maps of local area, interview aged inhabitants, research relief; – long term existence of tunnel leads to collapsing of its walls independently from groundwater putting at risk all superstructure; – earlier discovered tunnels filled with soil of low density are subjected to conduct underground water causing additional deformation for superstructure; – modern anthropogenic under flooding leads to complete destruction of tunnels.

Last modified: 2016-07-25 20:18:21