How Many Zaporizhian Siches Existed during Cossack History?Journal: Dnipropetrovsk University Bulletin. History & Archaeology series (Vol.1, No. 22)
Publication Date: 2014-12-10
Authors : Storozhenko I. S.;
Page : 26-31
Keywords : Cossack state; Borderland units; Outpost;
In the article author, basing upon his monographic research, proves, that during all history of Ukrainian Cossacks at Velykyi Lug only three Zaporizhian Siches existed: Bazavluc'ka (1590–1638), Chortomlyc`ka (1652–1638) and Pidpil'nens'ka or Nova (1734–1775). At the same time Khortytska Sich, Tomakivs'ka and Mykytyns'ka Siches were only forposts. Among Siches only Bazavluc'ka was Ukrainian state organization, Chortomlyc'ka and Pidpil'nens'ka were military borderland units. The author states, that the first Sich emerged on the principles of synergetics and ethnogenesis, that is principles of social self-development. External influence on the process of synergetics and ethnogenesis in emergence of first Sich (Bazavluc'ka) was caused by seven systematic components: 1. Great Borderland with its dangerous conditions of Crimea Tatars raids from the end of XV century (upper system) 2. Eight kosh's of sich-outposts (from 1585) on the islands of Velykyi Lug from every borderland castle, in which Cossacks lived (lower system). 3. Cossacks army with organized structure, formed to 1587–1590 (transitional model of the system for Zaporizhian Sich formation). 4. Legal act – permission to create autonomous structure at the Southern Dnieper Region under guidance of Polish king. It was issued by Polish Seim with support of Syhizmund III during third Cossack reform of 1590–1592 under the title «Order on nyzovci and Ukraine», 19.04.1590 (environment). 5. High level of development of road and mail connection between koshes of island siches at Velykyi Lug and volost (mechanism of administration and feedback). 6. Cossacks knight corporative ideology, based upon imperative: «Be whom you must be», and tradition to make decisions not after «majority agreement», but «general agreement». Notably, feeling of higher unity «we» had to oppress every concrete «I», what only could guarantee collective security in dangerous conditions of military trade 7. Turning of Cossacks into sub-ethnos during 1690–1696 – part of Ukrainian ethnos and its dominant, and Bazavluc`ka Sich became social coverage for that sub-ethnos.
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